Archives: Courses

ILS Approach Procedures


ILS Approach Procedures Most navigation systems approved for en route and terminal operations under IFR, such as VOR, NDB, and GPS, may also be approved to conduct instrument approach procedures. The most common system in use in the United States is the ILS. An ILS (instrument landing system) operates as a ground-based instrument approach system that provides precision …

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RNAV Approaches


RNAV Approaches Aviation is currently in a transition from ground-based navigation equipment to Global Navigation Satellite System. Nowadays, it is hard to find an airplane that doesn’t include a fully equipped GPS as part of the avionics. Instrument-rated pilots must master the GPS while performing an RNAV approach and be thoroughly familiar with all the …

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Complex Systems

Complex Systems A complex airplane, by definition, is an aircraft that has retractable landing gear, a constant speed propeller, and flaps. In this course, we will explain how a hydraulic landing gear and a constant speed propeller operate. It is critical for a pilot to have a full understanding of these two systems to fly …

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CAX Regulations

CAX Regulations Federal Aviation Regulations affect every aspect of flight. Commercial pilots must become thoroughly familiar with all the regulations affecting commercial operations. This course will cover the most significant Part 61 and 91 regulations that commercial pilots need to know to take advantage of the privilege of being compensated! Course Objectives Become familiar with part …

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Mastering ATC Communications

cockpit, pilot, people

Mastering ATC Communications All pilots must ensure to place a strong emphasis on ground operations; this is where a safe flight begins and ends. At no time should it consider a meaningless phase of flight. This provides the first opportunity to safely assess the various factors of flight operations, including the regulatory requirements, an evaluation …

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Environmental and Ice Control System

Environmental and Ice Control System Airplanes with high-altitude performance capabilities permit higher cruising speeds and allow their pilots to avoid many adverse weather situations. However, hazardous physiological conditions are likely to be encountered unless the airplane is equipped with an oxygen or pressurization system. Ice control systems further increase flight safety in the event icing …

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Aircraft Performance

background, technology, turbine

Aircraft Performance Performance is a term used to describe the ability of an aircraft to accomplish certain things that make it useful for certain purposes. For example, the ability of an aircraft to land and take off in a very short distance is an important factor to the pilot who operates in and out of …

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Flight Instruments

ATC, communication, flying,

Flight Instruments In order to safely fly any aircraft, a pilot must understand how to interpret and operate the flight instruments. The pilot also needs to be able to recognize associated errors and malfunctions of these instruments. This chapter addresses the pitot-static system and associated instruments, the vacuum system and related instruments, gyroscopic instruments, and …

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Aircraft Systems

propeller, airplane, aircraft

Aircraft Systems This chapter covers the primary systems found on most aircraft. These include the engine, propeller, induction, ignition, as well as the fuel, lubrication, cooling, electrical, landing gear, and environmental control systems. The main systems found on the Cessna 172 includes the primary flight controls and trim, flaps, powerplant, propeller, landing gear, fuel, oil, …

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IFR Cross Country Planning

IFR Cross Country Planning Federal Aviation Regulations require pilots to file an IFR Flight Plan so they can legally operate in controlled airspace under IFR. Every flight in IMC conditions requires pilots to use their ADM skills as much as they can so they can always stay two steps ahead of the airplane. Like any …

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VFR Cross-country flight Planning

VFR Cross-country Flight Planning This chapter provides an introduction to cross-country flying under visual flight rules (VFR). It contains practical information for planning and executing cross-country flights for the beginning pilot. Air navigation is the process of piloting an aircraft from one geographic position to another while monitoring one’s position as the flight progresses. It …

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IFR Regulations

IFR Regulations Federal Aviation Regulations affect every aspect of flight. Instrument Rated Pilots must become familiar with the regulations affecting IFR operations in controlled and uncontrolled airspace for them to operate safely in the National Airspace System. In this course, we will cover the most significant Part 61 and 91 regulations that pilots need to …

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Aeromedical Factors

human skeleton, human body, anatomy

Aeromedical Factors It is important for a pilot to be aware of the mental and physical standards required for the type of flying performed. This chapter provides information on medical certification and on a variety of aeromedical factors related to flight activities. Course Objectives Understand the Physiology of the human body that is related to aviation.  …

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Flying DME Arcs

Flying DME Arcs The DME arc is a procedure used to transition from the enroute segment to an instrument approach procedure. In this mini-course, we’ll show you the operational considerations of the Distance Measuring Equipment, and we will cover the steps required to fly a DME arc properly! Course Content Learn about the functions and …

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Aviation Weather Services

Aviation Weather Services While weather forecasts are not 100 percent accurate, meteorologists, through careful scientific study and computer modeling, have the ability to predict weather patterns, trends, and characteristics with increasing accuracy. Through a complex system of weather services, government agencies, and independent weather observers, pilots, and other aviation professionals receive the benefit of this …

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IFR Arrival Procedures

IFR Arrival Procedures This chapter focuses on the current procedures pilots and air traffic control (ATC) use for instrument flight rule (IFR) arrivals in the National Airspace System (NAS). The objective is to provide pilots with an understanding of ATC arrival procedures and pilot responsibilities as they relate to the transition between the en route …

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map, sail, sailor

Airspace Airspace is the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a country above its territory, including its territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere. It has multiple categories and types that are dictated by the complexity or density of aircraft movements or nature of the operations conducted within the airspace. …

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Instrument Approach Plates An instrument approach is nothing more or less than a written recipe for a landing. Pilots must learn how to follow it step by step thoroughly. While some pilots consider the approach phase of the IFR flight the most challenging one, there is no doubt that it is the one in which …

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Airport Operations

airport, aviation safety, international

Procedures & Airport Operations Air Traffic is increasing, airports expanding, and new complex runways and taxiways layouts are created. The pilot must know how to navigate in the ground and comply with the different procedures established by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) to increase safety.  Course Objectives Interpret airport markings, signs, and lighting.  Understand the operations affecting a …

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